Securing America's Future Energy

SAFE is a non-partisan, action-oriented organization committed to combating the economic and national security threats posed by America’s dependence on oil.

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National Strategy for Energy Security: The Innovation Revolution

The United States’ near-total dependence on oil to power our mobility destabilizes our economy and weakens our national security. Fortunately, America is on the cusp of an innovation revolution, one in which we can improve our energy security by powering our transportation system with a diverse set of fuels while offering greater safety and mobility for millions.

On May 19, SAFE and the members of its Energy Security Leadership Council, co-Chaired by Frederick W. Smith and General James T. Conway, will release the 2016 National Strategy for Energy Security: The Innovation Revolution

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SAFE Oil Security Index

Oil supply and demand in different countries around the world affects their energy security and their vulnerability to the volatile global oil market. The Index combines seven metrics to measure and rank the oil security of sixteen countries. The Index is updated on a quarterly basis.

 

  • Most
  • Norway 1st
  • South Africa 2nd
  • Japan 3rd
  • Germany 4th
  • France 5th
  • United Kingdom 6th
  • Australia 7th
  • China 8th
  • United States 9th
  • Mexico 10th
  • Canada 11th
  • Brazil 12th
  • Indonesia 13th
  • Least

Oil Security Index: Who is at risk?

Assessing countries' dependency on oil, exposure to the global oil market, and security of its physical supplies.

What is Oil Security? » What is Oil Security? »

What is Oil Security?

The term oil security can mean different things to different countries. For some—particularly those almost exclusively reliant on imports—physical supply security takes precedence over nearly any other measure. For others, physical supplies may be more dependable, but overall dependence on oil and inefficient use of oil leave their economies exposed to high and volatile oil prices. For each country, it is ultimately a combination of factors: their economy’s structural dependency on oil; their exposure to the price of oil and changes in this price; and the physical security of their oil supplies.

What is Oil Security?

The term oil security can mean different things to different countries. For some—particularly those almost exclusively reliant on imports—physical supply security takes precedence over nearly any other measure. For others, physical supplies may be more dependable, but overall dependence on oil and inefficient use of oil leave their economies exposed to high and volatile oil prices. For each country, it is ultimately a combination of factors: their economy’s structural dependency on oil; their exposure to the price of oil and changes in this price; and the physical security of their oil supplies.

Oil Security Rank

Most Secure
Least Secure

Positive
Neutral
Negative

  Overall Ranking
Oil Intensity Fuel Consumption per Capita Spending on Oil Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports Oil Supply Security Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
     

Oil Intensity

  • Norway
  • United Kingdom
  • France
  • Germany
  • Australia
  • Japan
  • China
  • United States
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • South Africa
  • Mexico
  • Indonesia
  • India
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia

Fuel Consumption per Capita

  • India
  • Indonesia
  • China
  • South Africa
  • Brazil
  • Russia
  • Mexico
  • Japan
  • United Kingdom
  • France
  • Germany
  • Norway
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • United States
  • Saudi Arabia

Spending on Oil

  • United Kingdom
  • France
  • Germany
  • Norway
  • Australia
  • Japan
  • China
  • United States
  • Canada
  • Mexico
  • Indonesia
  • Brazil
  • South Africa
  • India
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia

Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP

  • Saudi Arabia
  • Russia
  • Norway
  • Canada
  • Mexico
  • Brazil
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Australia
  • Germany
  • France
  • China
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • India
  • South Africa

Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports

  • South Africa
  • Germany
  • China
  • Japan
  • France
  • Australia
  • Indonesia
  • United States
  • United Kingdom
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • India
  • Canada
  • Norway
  • Russia
  • Saudi Arabia

Oil Supply Security

  • Norway
  • Canada
  • United States
  • Australia
  • Mexico
  • Saudi Arabia
  • South Africa
  • Brazil
  • Indonesia
  • United Kingdom
  • China
  • Germany
  • France
  • Japan
  • India
  • Russia

Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption

  • South Africa
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Japan
  • Germany
  • France
  • Norway
  • United States
  • Russia
  • Canada
  • United Kingdom
  • Australia
  • Mexico
  • Indonesia
  • Brazil
  • India
  • China
Norway 1st

Norway has made progress in greater transportation efficiency that looks set to continue, but its export income remains highly dependent on oil, and thus vulnerable to low oil prices.
1st 0 12th 1 4th 2% 3rd -8% 14th 33% 1st 9 6th 61%
South Africa 2nd

Although South Africa’s economy is not particularly reliant on oil, oil makes up a large share of its import bill (it ranks 12th in Total Spending on Net Oil Imports). Consumption-led growth is also increasing the country’s demand for petroleum products, with Fuel Consumption per Capita near tripling since 2000.
11th 1 4th 0 13th 6% 16th 4% 1st 0% 7th 6 1st 207%
Japan 3rd

Japan’s highly-efficient vehicle fleet helps cap oil demand, rendering Fuel Consumption per Capita the lowest among developed countries. Sizeable oil stockpiles also provide some cushion against the possibility of supply shocks.
6th 1 8th 1 6th 3% 14th 2% 4th 2% 14th 5 3rd 90%
Germany 4th

Despite being a sizeable net importer of oil, high levels of efficiency (it currently ranks 3rd in Oil Intensity) and a well-developed pipeline infrastructure mitigate Germany’s oil security risk. Germany also has sizeable oil stockpiles (higher than the United States, relative to consumption) to guard against supply shocks.
4th 1 11th 1 3rd 2% 10th 2% 2nd 1% 12th 5 4th 80%
France 5th

An already well-developed economy, France has continued to improve its efficiency, decreasing its consumption consistently; lower oil prices look set to only add to the benefits of its decreasing need for imports.
3rd 1 10th 1 2nd 2% 11th 2% 5th 2% 13th 5 5th 69%
United Kingdom 6th

The United Kingdom has suffered declining domestic oil production, which has been only partly offset by easing demand.  This has resulted in a substantial weakening of its Oil Supply Security (from 8.2 in 2009 to 7.0 since Q2 2013).  
2nd 0 9th 1 1st 2% 7th 1% 9th 7% 10th 6 10th 29%
Australia 7th

In recent years, improvement in Australia’s oil intensity has stagnated due to the increase in energy-intensive mining driven in large part by China’s booming demand for commodities. Australia’s Fuel Consumption per Capita is also among the highest in the Index (11th).
5th 1 13th 1 5th 3% 9th 1% 6th 3% 4th 7 11th 23%
China 8th

Despite improvements in vehicle efficiency, China remains heavily reliant on oil and, increasingly, oil imports (the country ranks 11th in Total Spending on Net Oil Imports as a Percentage of GDP). The country also relies heavily on relatively unstable and unpredictable regimes in the Middle East and West Africa, as well as Russia.
7th 1 3rd 0 7th 3% 12th 2% 3rd 1% 11th 5 16th 10%
United States 9th

Most measures of U.S. oil security and reliance have improved over the past decade despite the sharp increase in oil prices. For example, U.S. oil intensity has fallen by one third, and the quantity of oil imports has also declined as consumption has eased and production has risen.
8th 1 15th 2 8th 4% 8th 1% 8th 6% 3rd 7 7th 55%
Mexico 10th

Mexico’s relatively high level of oil production and oil exports, combined with its improving demand-side efficiency, have helped improve its oil security outlook in recent years, though fiscal reliance on oil remains a vulnerability. The country’s Total Spending on Oil as a Percentage of GDP is also among the highest in the Index.
12th 1 7th 0 10th 5% 5th -2% 11th 11% 5th 6 12th 21%
Canada 11th

High and rising domestic oil production more than meets Canada’s domestic demands and attracts sizeable direct foreign investment. As a major oil exporter, particularly to the United States, Negative Total Spending on Net Oil Imports as a Percentage of GDP is also a boon.
10th 1 14th 2 9th 4% 4th -3% 13th 18% 2nd 8 9th 38%
Brazil 12th

Despite (and occasionally because of) the sizeable use of ethanol as an alternative to oil in the transportation sector, Brazilian consumers pay a relatively high price for retail fuel, but consume among the lowest on a per capita basis (it currently ranks 4th in Fuel Consumption per Capita).
9th 1 5th 0 12th 6% 6th 0% 10th 9% 8th 6 14th 14%
Indonesia 13th

Indonesia has adapted to being a net oil importer, and while it has made consistent improvements in oil intensity, consumption per capita has been on an upward trend that could pose problems if oil prices spike.
13th 1 2nd 0 11th 5% 13th 2% 7th 4% 9th 6 13th 20%
India 14th

Although the oil intensity of India’s economy has decreased by 30 percent since 2000, the volumes of oil being imported and consumed have risen sharply, undermining its fiscal and external balances (it currently ranks 13th in Total Spending on Net Oil Imports as a Percentage of GDP).
14th 2 1st 0 14th 8% 15th 4% 12th 13% 15th 5 15th 12%
Saudi Arabia 15th

Saudi Arabia’s high oil intensity, rising domestic energy use, and fiscal reliance on oil make it extremely vulnerable to changing oil prices. The oil intensity of the economy and the average oil use per capita is high and rising, about 10 times and 3 times greater respectively than the most efficient countries.
16th 4 16th 2 16th 13% 1st -30% 16th 76% 6th 6 2nd 112%
Russia 16th

Russia’s high oil intensity, limited oil stockpiles, and heavy dependence of its fiscal account on oil export revenues contribute to a low ranking.  As a result of its poor business environment and policy uncertainty, Russia’s Oil Supply Security is also the lowest despite being a major oil producer.
15th 2 6th 0 15th 13% 2nd -13% 15th 47% 16th 3 8th 38%
  U.S. Overall Index Score
Oil Intensity Fuel Consumption per Capita Spending on Oil Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports Oil Supply Security Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
U.S. Spotlight »

U.S. Overall Index Score

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Oil Intensity

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Fuel Consumption per Capita

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Spending on Oil

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Oil Supply Security

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score

Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption

  • Oil Intensity
  • Fuel Consumption per Capita
  • Spending on Oil
  • Spending on Net Oil Imports Percent of GDP
  • Oil Exports Percent of Total Exports
  • Oil Supply Security
  • Oil Stockholdings Percent of Consumption
  • U.S. Overall Index Score
2015 - Q3 101 103 1 101 2 100 4% 100 1% 98 6% 104 7 101 55%
2015 - Q2 101 103 1 101 2 99 4% 100 1% 98 6% 103 7 101 55%
2015 - Q1 101 103 1 101 2 100 4% 100 1% 98 6% 103 7 101 55%
2014 Average 100 103 1 101 2 98 7% 99 1% 97 7% 102 7 101 54%
2014 - Q4 101 103 1 101 2 99 5% 100 1% 97 7% 103 7 101 54%
2014 - Q3 100 103 1 101 2 98 7% 99 1% 97 7% 102 6 101 54%
2014 - Q2 100 103 1 101 2 98 7% 99 1% 97 7% 102 6 101 54%
2014 - Q1 100 103 1 101 2 98 7% 99 1% 97 7% 102 6 101 55%
2013 Average 100 103 1 102 2 98 7% 99 2% 98 7% 102 6 102 56%
2013 - Q4 100 103 1 101 2 98 7% 99 1% 97 7% 102 6 101 55%
2013 - Q3 100 103 1 102 2 98 8% 99 1% 97 7% 102 6 102 56%
2013 - Q2 100 103 1 102 2 98 7% 99 2% 98 6% 102 6 102 56%
2013 - Q1 100 103 1 102 2 98 7% 99 2% 98 6% 102 6 102 56%
2012 Average 100 103 1 101 2 98 8% 98 2% 98 6% 101 6 102 56%
2012 - Q4 100 103 1 102 2 98 7% 98 2% 98 7% 101 6 102 56%
2012 - Q3 100 103 1 102 2 98 8% 98 2% 98 6% 101 6 102 56%
2012 - Q2 100 103 1 101 2 98 8% 98 2% 98 6% 101 6 102 55%
2012 - Q1 100 103 1 101 2 97 8% 98 2% 98 6% 101 6 102 56%
2011 Average 100 102 1 101 2 98 8% 98 2% 98 5% 101 6 102 57%
2011 - Q4 100 103 1 101 2 98 8% 98 2% 98 6% 101 6 102 56%
2011 - Q3 100 102 1 101 2 97 8% 98 2% 98 6% 101 6 102 57%
2011 - Q2 100 102 1 101 2 97 8% 98 2% 98 5% 100 6 102 57%
2011 - Q1 100 102 1 101 2 98 7% 98 2% 98 5% 100 6 102 57%
2010 Average 100 102 1 101 2 98 6% 99 2% 99 4% 101 6 102 58%
2010 - Q4 100 102 1 101 2 98 7% 98 2% 99 4% 100 6 102 58%
2010 - Q3 100 102 1 101 2 99 6% 98 2% 99 4% 100 6 102 58%
2010 - Q2 100 102 1 101 2 98 6% 99 2% 99 4% 101 6 102 58%
2010 - Q1 100 102 1 101 2 99 6% 99 2% 99 4% 101 6 102 58%
2009 Average 100 102 1 101 2 99 5% 99 2% 99 3% 101 6 102 56%
2009 - Q4 100 102 1 101 2 99 6% 99 1% 99 3% 100 6 102 58%
2009 - Q3 100 102 1 101 2 99 5% 99 1% 99 3% 100 6 102 57%
2009 - Q2 100 102 1 101 2 99 5% 98 2% 99 3% 101 6 102 56%
2009 - Q1 100 102 1 100 2 100 4% 98 2% 99 3% 101 6 101 54%
2008 Average 99 102 1 100 2 98 8% 97 3% 99 3% 99 6 100 51%
2008 - Q4 100 102 1 100 2 99 5% 97 3% 99 4% 99 6 101 53%
2008 - Q3 99 102 1 100 2 97 9% 96 3% 99 4% 99 6 100 51%
2008 - Q2 99 102 1 99 2 97 10% 97 3% 99 3% 99 6 100 51%
2008 - Q1 99 102 1 99 2 98 8% 97 2% 99 2% 99 6 100 51%
2007 Average 99 102 1 99 2 98 6% 98 2% 99 2% 99 6 100 51%
2007 - Q4 99 102 1 99 2 98 7% 98 2% 99 2% 99 6 100 51%
2007 - Q3 99 102 1 99 2 98 6% 98 2% 99 2% 99 6 100 51%
2007 - Q2 99 102 1 99 2 98 6% 98 2% 99 2% 99 6 100 51%
2007 - Q1 100 102 1 99 2 99 5% 98 2% 99 2% 99 6 100 51%
2006 Average 100 101 1 99 2 99 6% 98 2% 100 2% 101 6 100 51%
2006 - Q4 100 102 1 99 2 99 5% 98 2% 99 2% 101 6 100 51%
2006 - Q3 100 101 1 99 2 98 6% 98 2% 100 2% 100 6 100 51%
2006 - Q2 100 101 1 99 2 98 6% 98 2% 100 2% 101 6 100 51%
2006 - Q1 100 101 1 99 2 99 5% 98 2% 100 2% 101 6 100 51%
2005 Average 100 101 2 99 2 99 5% 99 2% 100 2% 100 6 100 49%
2005 - Q4 100 101 1 99 2 99 5% 98 2% 100 2% 100 6 100 50%
2005 - Q3 100 101 2 99 2 98 6% 99 2% 100 2% 101 6 100 49%
2005 - Q2 100 101 2 99 2 99 5% 99 2% 100 2% 100 6 100 49%
2005 - Q1 100 101 2 99 2 99 5% 99 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 48%
2004 Average 100 101 2 99 2 100 4% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2004 - Q4 100 101 2 99 2 99 4% 99 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 48%
2004 - Q3 100 101 2 99 2 99 4% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2004 - Q2 100 101 2 99 2 100 4% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2004 - Q1 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2003 Average 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2003 - Q4 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2003 - Q3 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2003 - Q2 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 46%
2003 - Q1 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 47%
2002 Average 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 49%
2002 - Q4 100 101 2 99 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 99 48%
2002 - Q3 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 48%
2002 - Q2 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 49%
2002 - Q1 100 100 2 100 2 100 2% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2001 Average 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2001 - Q4 100 100 2 100 2 101 2% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2001 - Q3 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2001 - Q2 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2001 - Q1 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2000 Average 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2000 - Q4 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2000 - Q3 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2000 - Q2 100 100 2 100 2 100 3% 100 1% 100 1% 100 6 100 50%
2000 - Q1 100 100 2 100 2 100 0% 100 0% 100 0% 100 6 100 0%

U.S. Overall Index Score

This score shows changes in U.S. oil security over time. It is calculated by combining results for each metric that are normalized over the entire time series. The score is indexed at 100 in Q1 2000, the first time period.